The Coronavirus SARS-CoV, appeared for the first time in November 2002 in the province of Canton in China after the ..... popular uprising in Tiananmen Square of 1989, also known as the Tiananmen massacre, the Tiananmen revolt or the June 4 incident, consisted of a series of demonstrations led by Chinese students, which occurred between April 15 and June 4, 1989
The protests in Hong Kong are a series of rallies and demonstrations held in Hong Kong, 2019-2020, to demand the withdrawal of the Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill). presented by the government of Carrie Lam and that after achieving their goal they continued to demand democracy for the former British colony. Opposition to the extradition law stemmed from fears that the bill would open the autonomous city to the laws of the People's Republic of China and that Hong Kong residents would be subjected to a different legal system.
The first major demonstration took place on Sunday, June 9, 2019 and was called by the Civil Human Rights Front (CHRF). According to the organizers, 1.03 million people gathered and the demonstration garnered wide media coverage.
This demonstration was accompanied by protests elsewhere abroad organized by Hong Kongers from abroad and by local activists.
The demonstration was Hong Kong's largest mobilization since the 2014 Umbrella Revolution.
Photographs taken at the same location as the large demonstrations on June 9 and 16.
The first day the protesters wore white garments; the second black.
The government insisted in principle on the approval of the bill, stating that it was urgent and that it should repair the existing "legal loophole", but on June 15 it rectified and Carrie Lam announced that it was indefinitely delaying the bill, although it also made it clear that the bill was not being withdrawn.
The response came the next day, Sunday June 16, when a second large demonstration took place in the streets of Hong Kong, with greater participation than the first - the organizers estimated that close to two million people had gathered -, so if the figures were accurate it was the biggest protest in Hong Kong history.
This time the protesters were not only calling for the definitive withdrawal of the extradition bill but also for the resignation of the head of the Hong Kong government,
Carrie Lam. On June 17, 2019, the day after the large demonstration, student leader Joshua Wong was released from prison after serving a three-month prison sentence for the events that occurred in 2014, “Five years ago, when the Umbrella Movement, we said we would return. And five years later, after suffering political repression and pressure, we have. We have succeeded, ”Wong declared after regaining his freedom.
A day later, he announced new mobilizations until the head of government Lam resigns, the charges against the activists arrested in the protests on Wednesday June 12 are dropped and the extradition bill to China is definitively withdrawn. On June 21, several thousand people surrounded the Hong Kong police headquarters to demand the release of the detainees. On July 1, the 22nd anniversary of the reversion of the Hong Kong colony to Chinese sovereignty, a large protest demonstration took place again and in parallel hundreds of activists stormed the Hong Kong Parliament - the most violent incident since it protests began. In the following days, the police began to arrest those allegedly involved. New demonstrations took place on July 710 and July 21.11 The protests continued in the following weeks, being harshly repressed by the police who carried out numerous arrests.12 On Monday, August 5, the first general strike took place in 50 years. In the following weekends, the demonstrations and clashes with the police continued, causing several injuries and numerous arrests. On September 4,
President Lam announced the definitive withdrawal of the extradition bill that started the protests, but these continued during the following months.
On October 23, the Hong Kong Assembly officially withdrew the extradition bill and the defendant whose case gave rise to the bill was released.
November 2 saw the most serious disturbances ever recorded. Nine days later, a protester died during a police intervention, which caused an indefinite general strike to begin on Monday,
November 11, during which there were numerous violent incidents and the death of a municipal employee. On November 24, municipal elections were held in which the candidates of the democratic bloc swept. On New Year's Day 2020, a massive march for democracy took place that ended with clashes between the police and radical groups.
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China caused the number of large-scale demonstrations to decline further due to fears that they could facilitate the spread of the virus. Despite this, the tactics of the pro-democracy movement were reused to pressure the government to take stronger action to safeguard Hong Kong's public health in the face of the coronavirus outbreak in Hong Kong. The protesters demanded that all travelers from the mainland be banned from entering Hong Kong. From February 3 to 7, 2020, the hospital staff began a labor strike with the same objective.
The strike was partially successful as Lam, despite rejecting a total border closure, only left three of the 14 crossing points with mainland China open.
People responded negatively to the government's attempt to establish clinical and quarantine centers in neighborhoods close to residents, marching to express their discontent or blocking roads to thwart government plans across the territory.
Between the end of January and the beginning of February, improvised explosive devices were found in several places and gasoline bombs were thrown at four police stations and a patrol car in a wave of action due to the fact that the government did not close the border of the city and did not supply protective equipment.
As the coronavirus crisis intensified in February and March 2020, the scale of the protests declined further. Police have used coronavirus laws that prohibit groups of more than four, for example, to disperse protesters.
On April 18, police arrested 15 pro-democracy activists, including Jimmy Lai, Martin Lee, and Margaret Ng FREEDOM NOW, for their activities in 2019, sparking international condemnation. On May 15, a 21-year-old man surnamed SinLIBERTAD NOW was sentenced to four years in prison for his participation in the June 12 protest, becoming the first person to be jailed on the riot charge since the movement began. protest. On May 21, 2020, state media announced that the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) would begin drafting a new law that will cover "secession, foreign interference, terrorism, and subversion against the central government. ", to be added to Annex III of the Hong Kong Basic Law. This meant that the law would come into force upon enactment, bypassing local legislation. Observers saw this as China's boldest step yet to bring Hong Kong under its control, and accused it of depreciating the "one country, two systems" principle in violation of the terms of the Sino-British Joint Declaration.
They hoped it would have far-reaching effects on the city's free speech and future economic success.
The United Kingdom, along with Australia, Canada and the United States, also issued a joint statement expressing their deep concern over the National Security Act on May 28. Despite international pressure, the NPCSC passed national security legislation that day. The draft sparked a surge in protests:
The May 24 mass march in Causeway Bay was the largest protest since the start of the pandemic, as civilians responded to calls online to march against the Anthem bill.
National and the proposed national security law.
For the first time in two months, the police fired tear gas to try to disperse the protesters.
On May 27, at least 396 people were arrested during a one-day protest in Hong Kong over the reading of the national anthem on the same day and the anti-seizure law; most of the detainees were detained even before the protest actions began.
On June 30, the NPCSC passed the national security law unanimously, without informing the public or local officials of the content of the law.
The law created a chilling effect on the city. Demosistō, who had been involved in lobbying for the support of other nations, and various pro-independent groups announced that they had decided to dissolve and cease all operations, fearing they would be the target of the new law. Thousands of protesters showed up on July 1 to protest the newly implemented law. That day, the police arrested at least ten people for violating national security on the grounds that individuals who displayed or possessed flags, posters, and phone stickers bearing protest slogans or other protest art had already committed the crime of "subverting the country. ". Encouraged by its success in the November 2019 District Council elections, the pro-democracy bloc intended to win more than half of the 70 Legislative Council seats in the elections to be held on September 6. To achieve this, the pro-democratic camp held primaries for the first time. Some members of the pro-democracy camp, particularly the more radical Democrats, vowed to use all the constitutional powers of the LegCo members to force the government to yield and respond to the five demands. Undeterred by the national security law, more than 600,000 people cast their vote in mid-July 2020. In the primaries,
the traditional parties lost ground in most of the direct electoral districts to the localists and radical democrats. Beijing offices in Hong Kong declared the primaries "illegal" and later a "blatant defiance" of the Basic Law and national security law, forcing the organizers to withdraw from further electoral coordination. The Hong Kong government disqualified twelve candidates on July 30, almost all winners of the pro-democracy primaries. In an unexpected move, the scrutineers also disqualified four incumbent legislators who were generally considered more moderate from running in the elections. The decision generated international condemnation for obstructing the elections and the democratic process.
The next day, Carrie Lam, going against public opinion, invoked emergency powers to delay the elections until September 2021, citing the pandemic as the reason.
The pan-democratic bloc criticized the decision, believing it was politically motivated.
The NPCSC passed a motion to extend the 6th Legislative Council (which has a pro-Beijing majority) for no less than one year. Some activists deemed the NPCSC's decision illegal, leading to a debate on the march or suspension that ultimately ended with the departure of three pro-democracy lawmakers. While the NPCSC allowed the four disqualified incumbent legislators to transition to the extended term in July, they decided to remove them from office in November 2020, resulting in the massive resignation of all opposition lawmakers.
As protest activities waned, the government continued to tighten its grip on Hong Kong, from censoring school textbooks and removing any mention of the Tiananmen massacre, to removing questions from public examinations. that the authorities considered it politically inappropriate, to deregister "yellow tape teachers, to declare that the separation of powers never existed in Hong Kong despite previous comments from the city's top judges acknowledging its importance in Hong Kong.
He also attempted to reshape the narrative of the Yuen Long attack by stating that the attack had not been indiscriminate, changing the officially reported police response time and arresting Lam Cheuk-ting FREEDOM NOW, a pro-democracy lawmaker who was injured in the attack, for "riots." .
In August 2020, the Department of Justice, under the leadership of Teresa Cheng, intervened and dismissed two private prosecutions initiated by pro-democracy legislator Ted Hui Chi-fung against a driver who struck a protester in October 2019 and a police officer. that shot. and seriously injured a protester in November 2019. On January 6, 2021, the Hong Kong police carried out a raid against the democratic opposition in which 50 activists and politicians accused of subversion were arrested under the contested National Security Law approvd in June 2020 by the Beijing government. .
Those arrested included the vast majority of the best-known opposition politicians. It was the largest police raid since the 2019 protests.
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April 16, 2021
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